One way to think about mindfulness and effort in meditation practice is to imagine a graph where the X axis is volition (doing things on purpose), and the Y axis is consciousness, or being aware of what’s happening. Here’s a talk on this model, some pictures, and a handout to put on the fridge.
Meditation: stillness of body, stillness of mind, shepherding your state (wise effort). (10.16.18)
Talk: Four modes of attention: conscious-directed, conscious-undirected, unconscious-undirected, unconscious-directed. (10.16.18)